The population and organizational ecology approaches describe selection processes as continuously taking place in organizational change and development. The ecological selection approach examines location, technology, geographical boundaries and the social and spatial arrangements of organizational development, and suggests that environmental changes and competitive and adaptive strategies do shape organizational growth and change. Ecological systems theory follows the deterministic approach to explain the rise and fall of organizations and shapes the conditions that develop homogeneity, diversity, stability, change and growth among them. Williamson introduced transaction cost economic analysis to the study of organizations and change. The ecological framework has integrated sustainability with the institutionalization of the environmental conservation policies of organizations. Sustainable development as a sociological and anthropological approach to change is based on continuous learning and adaptation that can be used to guide policies, technological innovations and institutions.