ABSTRACT

Almost all of the schools of Indian philosophical tradition agree in accepting an ultimate goal (parama puruṣārtha) of life which signifies complete cessation of all kinds of pain and is variously expressed as svarga, 1 apavarga, 2 mukti, 3 vimukti, 4 nirvāṇa, 5 kaivalya 6 and mokṣa. 7 In several schools the nomenclatures vary and the nature of this ultimate goal is conceived differently, although all schools are unanimous in holding a hopeful, perfect and positive conception of the final aim. In fact, this idea is a unique contribution of Indian philosophy to the world of thought. Accordingly, the Vaiśeṣika system has also posited an ultimate goal, which can be accomplished by knowing the true nature of reals.