This chapter explores the relationship between the regulatory policies of the European Union and the Union's trade relations with the United States and other countries. The first section examines the general issue of trade and environment, placing it within the context of the rules and procedures of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT)/Worid Trade Organisation (WTO). The second section discusses two of the most visible trade disputes over the alleged use of environmental regulations as trade barriers that have involved the European Union. Both disputes involved the United States: the first stemmed from the impact of American automotive fuel economy standards on European luxury car exports to the US and the second from an American ban on imports of European processed tuna fish. The chapter then turns to a series of ongoing trade conflicts in which the EU has been accused ofengaging in unfair trade practices to promote conservation, protect wildlife and promote ecolabelling. In light of these disputes, the concluding section assesses the EU's recent proposals to reform the environmental provisions of the GATT/WTO and draws some general conclusions about the development ofEU policies and practices on trade and environmental protection.