ABSTRACT

The classical theories of industrial capitalism held that the social relations of production - ownership and control of the means and forces of production (labor and technology) - brought about a distinct social division of labor and opposing social classes of people. The social relations of production determined class and social character, as well as the everyday life of industrial workplaces. Marx and his descendants considered ways in which the material social relations were supported and facilitated at the workplace by ideologies which were so firmly embedded in the technologies of industry that, while not always invisible, they were generally taken for granted. The classical Marxist effort usually focused on criticizing these ideologies and discerning their various political manifestations in the reproduction and legitimation of capitalist social relations in society. While ideology was, and remains, important among the discursive practices of production, there are other and new discourses that require excavation and analysis. These discourses are emerging in the wake of the decline of industrialism and its classical ideologies.