Coinciding with these historical and academic events, technological and social developments were afoot in production and work that would launch a transformation of considerable magnitude in that domain by the end of the twentieth century. I address in this chapter the theoretical problematic of work during these transformations of modem industrial capitalism. I discuss the current neglect of work in critical social theory, since the post19608 crisis in historical materialism, and I argue that the contemporary transformations occurring in that domain require renewed critical attention. In addition, I review briefly the discourses of occupation and solidarity which provide the conventional modem understandings of these categories as a preface to my later challenging of these modern categories in subsequent chapters. I conclude this chapter with a discussion on self and society.