In the past 30 years, environmental policy in the Netherlands has evolved through three distinct phases. From 1970 to 1983, delimiting the ecological policy arena was the aim. Efforts during this phase focused on cleaning up pollution after it occurred. In the second phase, from 1984 to 1989, the aim was ensuring pollution prevention. The third phase, from 1990 to the present, has emphasised eco-efficiency and encouraged the integration of ecological and economic concerns. It appears that a fourth phase is about to begin, with a broader international scope and highlighted by a multisectoral concern for sustainability (see Table 2.1).