The Commission’s measures to improve the effectiveness of the centralized infringement procedure could not compensate for what the institutions experienced as a serious omission in their supervisory competences - the absence of sanctions against non-complying states. In this second chapter on the supranational institutions’ efforts to strengthen EU enforcement, I trace their attempts to induce the delegation of sanctioning powers. The focus of the chapter, which covers largely empirical developments not previously accounted for, are the negotiations on sanctions at the 1991 and 1996-7 IGCs.