We now follow on with an exploration of ideas

relevant to a more integrated concept of human-

environment relations. This presents a world view

different to that characterised by Enlightenment

thinking and supports a more holistic view of the

human-environment relationship that ties together

more closely human behavioural and psychologi-

cal functioning with the settings in which it

occurs. Key elements of this can be traced to

counter-enlightenment movements and found in

the tenets of more recent philosophical and

cultural ideas. The Romantic movement in partic-

ular emerged as a revolt against material changes

in society which accompanied the growth of cities

and industrial expansion during the eighteenth

century. As a discernible cultural movement, the

Romantic challenge to the Enlightenment was

relatively short-lived, lasting until the mid-nine-

teenth century. But vestiges of Romantic thought

remain today particularly within the growth of the

modern environmental movement, and this has

helped fuel challenges to the Enlightenment

concept of civilisation that have gathered pace

over the past two decades (Lincoln and Guba,

1985). In part this is related to increasing aware-

ness of environmental and ecological threats,

argued by some (Schumacher, 1973; Capra, 1982)

to be a direct consequence of the Enlightenment’s

techno-scientific legacy, and by cultural and

scientific developments in the twentieth century

which challenge fundamentally the stability of its

deterministic and dualistic foundations. This has

underpinned interest in a more ecological, holis-

tic view of human-environment relations, elements

of which have been explored in the context of

landscape architectural theory but have not really

taken root. The general characteristics lean

towards a more phenomenological philosophy

which provides foundations for human experi-

ence to be at the heart of the way the concept of

place is understood. The implications of this for

the design of outdoor places will be explored later,

but first we want to focus on some of the broader

philosophical influences on human-environment