Earlier in the book, it was stressed that many new graduate recruits into organizations naively believed that to succeed and to be promoted, it was sufficient for them to work hard, and that their hard work would be recognized and rewarded. If hard work is necessary but not sufficient in itself, what else is required? More specifically, how do companies choose amongst competing candidates for the declining number of managerial posts? The explanation that organizations give for public consumption can be labelled the rational view, and states that they see their employees as their most valuable resource, and seek to make the best use of their skills. Posts are therefore filled by those individuals who are considered to be best fitted to carrying them out. For this reason, careful selection is conducted, which benefits both the individual and the company. This view stresses that selection is based on merit. The company ignores irrelevant or non-functional criteria such as applicants’ family connections, membership of clubs or pandering to the social prejudices of selectors. Instead, it is an applicant’s track record that counts. This rational view stresses objectivity, and the application of clearly defined, quasi-scientifically determined, selection procedures and techniques.