With Karl Marx, we come to the topic of Jewish self-hate. This is a phenomenon that belongs particularly to the age of Enlightenment. Before that period, Jews saw themselves in the light of their own tradition. They defined themselves as a nation and a religious community which had been exiled from its own land and suffered oppression in the lands in which it lived as aliens and sojourners. After the Enlightenment, however, Jews began to think of themselves as citizens of the world, with allegiance only to the nation in which they happened to find themselves.