The advances of Bolívar into New Granada and of San Martín into Chile transformed the struggle between Spain and its insurgent enemies. In the fi rst place, their successes damaged Spain’s strategic position in South America by providing the patriots with resources for revolutionary war against the remaining royalist territories in New Granada, Venezuela, and Peru. More signifi cant, however, were the political repercussions of these military events in Spain, for the failures of Spain’s armies in South America were a catalyst for crisis at the center of the monarchy.