In Chapter 3 we argued that previous empirical analyses to which our work is related have found some evidence of a relationship between technical change and economic growth and technical change and international competitiveness. Other studies have also found a link between international competitiveness and economic growth. Finally we have shown how various studies with mostly eclectic theoretical foundations have reached different conclusions on the relationship between specialisation (in technology or trade) and country performance in domestic or international markets. Therefore there appeared to be an area where further empirical work could be undertaken and an attempt at clarifying and systematising the link between the theory and the empirical evidence could be made. This book has aimed at contributing in this direction.