This chapter reviews published applications of efficiency measurement in health care. This encompasses systematic searching of all available databases, as well as using contact lists such as mailbase/listserve1 and the Productivity Analysis Research Network. Papers are reviewed with a view to determining methods used, data used, models specified, sensitivity analysis employed, validity and robustness of techniques, results and policy implications. Furthermore, results are summarized in a form of meta-analysis in order to synthesize results and draw out further implications.