In this, the final chapter, we comment on progress to date in efficiency measurement in health and health care, and suggest a research agenda for the future. Given the rapid growth in research in the area in the last ten years we summarize why efficiency measurement has gained in popularity, despite some criticisms of the efficiency measurement tools available to researchers. Some of this popularity may be attributed to the relative ease with which researchers can now employ DEA and SFA methods. However, much of it may also be attributed to the potential uses of efficiency measurement in decision making.