CASTRO LONG CONCERNED himself with rural/urban inequities. He did so since his guerrilla days in the Sierra Maestra. The inequities date back, in Cuba as elsewhere in Latin America, to the colonial period, when the cities, above all the imperial outposts, were favored over the hinterland.1 And cities were favored again in the twentieth century, especially after World War II, as countries in the region promoted importsubstitution industrialization.