It should be apparent that cities have been forced to adjust to severe structural changes occurring within national and international economies. Some of the most heavily affected are the former manufacturing cities of various rust-belts, in the north of the UK, north-east USA and certain Australian states. These cities have been at the sharp end of the effects of the globalisation of the world economy and its transition from industrial to post-industrial. They have seen their economic bases largely eroded and with them their former afﬂuence and economic pre-eminence. How they have adjusted to these wider economic changes is of profound importance to their current and future welfare and development. This chapter offers an evaluation of the measures undertaken by these cities to adjust to changing economic circumstances.