This introduction presents an overview of key concepts discussed in the subsequent chapters of the book. The book addresses an important gap in literature by debating an Islamic perspective on education and educational leadership in today's multi-faith, multi-ethnic societies. It discusses the role of knowledge and education within Islamic ideology, and reviews the theoretical underpinnings and the resulting conceptualizations and interpretations. The book also proposes an enhanced understanding of complex contexts and debates, and suggesting possibilities for engagement, though no cut-and-dried solutions. It explores the complexity of multi-ethnic/multi-faith educational institutions in the UK and the leadership challenges therein, drawing attention to the students' and the community's needs and expectations. Concepts and theories informed by any one particular philosophical thought often have serious limitations when applied to complex contexts. The book proposes to extend the theoretical debates by bringing alternate concepts of education and leadership into the field and to emphasize the need for complex theoretical constructs for increasingly complex contexts.