Moving beyond the impasse on language policy and planning identiﬁed in ‘Contemporary Geographies’ requires that the complexity of relationships between the state(s) in Ireland, local Irish language communities and individual Irish-speakers with regard to their various roles, expectations and rights is better understood (Williams, 1988: 294-5). In order that this might be achieved, the theme of citizenship and language equality and rights is examined in relation to the Irish language in Ireland as a whole. A number of signiﬁcant changes with regard to Irish language policy and planning in the Republic of Ireland are identiﬁed. This includes a new place for the Irish language in the statutory regime and the enactment of legislation for the practical implementation of the constitutional commitments to the Irish language as the national and ﬁrst ofﬁcial language. Other developments relate to the increasing proﬁle of the Irish language in NI, with linguistic diversity as a feature of the recent political agreement and its associated institutions. It is in this context that the shifting nature of the discourse of Irish language policy and planning is traced. This is undertaken in particular with regard to the Gaeltacht as a geographical and statutory space, as well as the sense of place that is the Gaeltacht. Thus, the existence of sustainable Irish-speaking communities beyond the Gaeltacht is recognised as a sociological fact that is necessary to the continuity of the Irish language while at the same time inviting the redeﬁnition of the Gaeltacht. Also, reconﬁgurations of Irish citizenship with regard to the Irish language are shown to comprise both ethnic and civic dimensions. In this sense that fashionable rhetoric which underlines an apparent dichotomy between ethnic and civic nationalism is shown to be much overstated. It is in these contexts – that of minorities, equality and rights; and, that regarding the sustainability of the Gaeltacht – where the most signiﬁcant tensions for Irish language policy and planning are currently identiﬁed and the prospects for their resolution are measured throughout the chapters of this ‘Discourse’.