Overextended by its war with Germany in 1917, the czarist government began to disintegrate. None too strong to begin with, the Russian economy could not supply both the country’s military and civilian needs. On the political side, Russia was wracked by corruption and intrigue. In this weakened and vulnerable state, the unthinkable happened. In late February 1917, the heretofore all-powerful czar Nicholas II ordered the members of the parliamentary Duma to go home, but they did not. This was the first 1917 revolution. The Provisional Government under Alexander Kerensky, which was formed shortly after those events in February was, however, unable to restore order and economic growth. Thus, the country’s economy and political structure continued to weaken. In November (October of the old calendar) the Bolsheviks seized power, promising a new order.