It would seem that such vibrant, creative and diverse political actions as the ones I’ve discussed are impossible to summarize in a few brief closing statements. It feels somehow wrong to attempt to neatly contain them with a few final pronouncements in a tidy and orderly fashion. And yet I do want to conclude by highlighting the aspects of Code Pink and IVAW that I feel were instrumental to their impact during the Bush years. I also want to explore the evolutions to political protest that have occurred more recently, and the implications of this for anti-war activism in future.