This chapter provides a brief history of Philippine relations with the People’s Republic of China (PRC) since diplomatic ties were established in 1975.1 It explains how, following the first twenty years of generally cordial relations from 1975 to 1995, concern has grown in Manila over the prospects of a rising China. Beijing’s occupation of Philippine-claimed Mischief Reef in the Spratly Islands and other assertions of maritime sovereignty, coupled with China’s increasing military expenditure, have provided the basis for such concern. However, other strategic factors have also played a role, including the fear of a disengaging United States, and the difficulty of pursuing alternative security arrangements such as the multilateral ASEAN Regional Forum (ARF).