The ‘China threat’ is a term that came into vogue in the early 1990s after the massacre of pro-democracy activists in Beijing’s Tiananmen Square on 4 June 1989. The term refers to a rising China that is growing economically stronger and militarily more powerful, and is perceived as likely to use its national power in a militarily aggressive manner.1 Some analysts view China’s military modernisation as exceeding the requirements for legitimate self-defence.