ABSTRACT

In The Social Construction of Reality: A Treatise in the Sociology of Knowledge, Berger and Luckmann provide a brief historical chronology of this critical theoretical tradition by locating the immediate progenitors of a sociology of knowledge (Marx, Nietzsche, and Dilthey) and identifying their contributions of a trilogy of constructs: “superstructure/substructure,” “anti-idealism,” and “historicism.”2 A formal discipline of the sociology of scientific knowledge was born in the 1920s when first Scheler, then Mannheim, extended Marx’s material analysis of “ideology (ideas serving as weapons for social interests)” and developed a philosophy of inquiry to study the history of ideas, exempting the natural sciences and mathematics.3