the prosecution of scientific research on a large scale is a prominent feature of modern development. Universities and technical colleges insist upon research productivity from their scientific departments; the State spends large sums annually upon it; industry has developed it into a masterly weapon; the creation of special research institutions and the furtherance by various means of particular lines of enquiry are noticeably on the increase. What lies behind this rapid development and how best can it be brought into relation with the necessities of the times?