Public relations is a profession in the sense that it is an advisory service, its practitioners can obtain professional qualifications, and it has a professional institute whose members are required to uphold a code of conduct. In Britain there is the Institute of Public Relations and in the USA the Public Relations Society of America, both founded in 1948. There are similar bodies in most countries. There are also specialised bodies, and also international associations. In addition, there are independent vocational examining bodies such as the Communications, Advertising and Marketing Educational Foundation and the London Chamber of Commerce and Industry.