The best way to assess results is to begin with objectives, as demonstrated in Chapter Three on tangible public relations. Evaluation may be by a scientific method, using research techniques, or by observation and experience. Thus we have both quantitative and qualitative methods of assessment. When marketing research methods have been applied to the appreciation of the situation the same methods can be repeated at intervals, but certainly at the conclusion of the PR programme. Shifts of opinion, improvements in awareness or more accurate perception of the image can be measured. Two main methods may be used, the opinion poll and the image study.