This chapter focuses on vision and hearing because which they are arguably most relevant to learning in an academic context. It emphasizes that perception involves all five of people senses: vision, hearing, touch, taste, and smell. Sensation is the signals received by people organs through the five senses, whereas perception is the interpretation of those signals. Sensation is objective, whereas perception is subjective. The difference between sensation and perception serves to explain why people don't always experience the world exactly how it is or in the same way as the next person. The curse of knowledge is the phenomenon of thinking something is easy or obvious because people have had a lot of experience with it. The curse of knowledge means that sometimes people as teachers can lack awareness of how students process information. Students from different cultures may also have different reactions to instructional techniques, and different motivations for learning.