DOI link for Introduction
This part introduction presents an overview of the key concepts discussed in the subsequent chapters. The part describes six strategies to follow how a student might approach studying: planning when to study, developing understanding and reinforcing knowledge. These six strategies are pacing, retrieval practice, interleaving, elaboration, concrete examples and dual coding. Retrieval practice involves bringing information to mind from memory, which is a technique that is much more effective at promoting long-term learning than the more common technique of re-reading class materials. While students do sometimes test themselves, it is usually to check their knowledge rather than to produce learning. Students are therefore missing out on mastering techniques that they could use on their own to learn effectively. Elaboration – specifically, elaborative interrogation – involves students asking "how" and "why" questions. Dual coding combines words and visuals, giving students two pathways by which to retrieve information later.