This chapter addresses two questions: (a) What instructional methods are used in American bilingual classrooms, and (b) how effective are these instructional practices in fostering second-language learning? As we saw in the previous chapter, there are many different rationales for bilingual education. In the present chapter, the focus is primarily on second-language learning. This is by no means to downgrade other important goals of bilingual education, such as school achievement, psychological adjustment, and biculturalism (though to a considerable extent, realizing these goals depends upon successful second-language learning).