It is now well established, and the present research supports the conclusion, that children, living at home with a parent who has a serious alcohol problem, are often subject to high levels of stress and a quality of family climate and relationships with parents that is much less than ideal. More often than not this a chronic rather than temporary state of affairs for children. Whilst it is equally important to emphasise the variability that has been found in the present study as in others, it is the case that offspring, whilst living at home, are at considerably increased risk for a whole range of childhood problems-emotional, conduct, in their education, and in their relationships with friends and the links between the home and their

peer group. The implications for intervention that this knowledge provides are that these children wil l often need specific help in those areas.