This chapter describes the characteristics and applications of the three basic methods of primary data collection: experimentation, observation, and interview. It compares the strengths and weaknesses of the three principal interview research strategies: in-person, telephone, and mail. The chapter identifies the marketing mix factors that affect a product’s image and how an image can be researched. Observation involves recording the behavior of people or the results of this behavior. It can sometimes be done without the knowledge or consent of the subjects, thus allowing them to behave uninhibitedly. The content of an observation can be recorded either by a person or by an electronic device. An image can come from a multitude of factors. It can be outcomes of a company’s own efforts as well as those of its competitors. It can result from the choice of corporate or brand name, the symbolism used, or any other part of the entire marketing effort, including product design, pricing, and distribution.