Enhancing urban productivity is clearly desirable, as it improves competitiveness and, ultimately, the prosperity of any city. More productive cities are able to increase output with the same amounts of resources, generating additional real income that can raise living standards through more affordable goods and services. More specifically, the extra income and municipal revenue generated through productivity will enable any city to provide more, better services, such as housing, education and healthcare, social programmes and expanded infrastructure networks to support both productive and leisure activities. Raising urban productivity is not a goal in itself, but a critical starting point to provide residents with decent income for their basic needs and adequate living standards. 1