Every living animal takes in food, metabolizes it to extract energy and nutrients, and discharges wastes. Perhaps nothing is more essential than food to the survival of every living organism, including us. Almost all of the food for humans comes either from agriculture or from harvesting animals from the oceans. Agriculture is the science of cultivating plants and animals as food crops. Currently agriculture occupies about 38 percent of the Earth’s land surface (Withgott and Brennan 2009, 135). By definition, it involves manipulating environments and ecosystems. The question is: how can we harvest seafood and practice agriculture in ways that are most sustainable for individual beings, ecosystems, and the biosphere as a whole?