Deciding Whether To Use Symptom-Focused techniques at any particular time is complex. Proffering such strategies may or may not constitute the optimal therapeutic intervention in a given situation. In considering this possibility, it is necessary that the clinician reflect on her understanding of her patient at this specific point. However, since therapy happens in real time, a balance of reflection and action is needed, including some openness to spontaneity and a willingness to try something different. Decisions must usually be made on the basis of incomplete information because it is so difficult to predict future events involving complex systems (Seligman, 2005). In this chapter I suggest several considerations that might indicate whether optimal responsiveness in a particular situation is best conveyed by traditional practices, such as empathic listening and interpreting, or by symptom-focused interventions.