Introduction While the other cognitive abilities we have discussed in this section (memory, attention, perception and thinking) are general abilities that can be found in other animals, there is a powerful argument that language is a uniquely human ability. It is of enormous importance to our functioning and the advances humans have made. It is the basis of our knowledge and the transmission of this knowledge. It is the basis of our communication and its sophistication surpasses by some distance the communication systems possessed by other species. It is also the basis of much of our leisure, in the form of books, films and other media. It could be argued that it is one of the defining characteristics of being human.