Meditation, if it is to be considered an empirically effective clinical strategy, needs to be subjected to the same scientific scrutiny as any other psychotherapeutic strategy. One of the primary weaknesses in meditation studies thus far has been the lack of a clear theoretical rationale linking the independent variable and the selection of the dependent variable. Careful consideration should be given to the nature of the independent variable. It is crucial that experimenters report accurately all procedures used. When meditation is conceptualized as an altered state of consciousness, a different research methodology may be necessary. As C. Tart has pointed out, there is a need for detailed mapping of internal states of consciousness. However, since these internal states are subjective phenomena, it may be quite helpful if the subject is also the experimenter. This raises several methodological problems, including experimenter bias and reactive effects of observation.