Meditation has been compared on a descriptive level with several different self-regulation strategies—hypnosis; biofeedback; behavioral self-control; autogenic training—as well as generally with other self-regulation strategies. An example of a methodology for comparing meditation with other self-regulation strategies, it is compared with behavioral self-management; then possible ways and rationales for combining the techniques are discussed. This chapter compares self-control techniques developed within the Eastern religion of Zen Buddhism and the Western psychological framework of social learning theory. It looks at two clinical strategies: Zen meditation and behavioral self-control. Zen meditation is a technique within a religious/philosophical framework that has a view of man different from the philosophical view of man on which social learning theory rests. Zen meditation also focuses attention both on inner experiences and on the external environment. The development of stimulus control may be a prerequisite step in successfully implementing a behavioral self-management strategy.