Numerous attempts have been made to reshape the Russian institutional landscape both in the past as well as more recently, during the period covered in this book. They have taken the form of revolutions and reforms, both small- and large-scale. The best institutional and organizational designs developed through the experience of other countries have served as models in these endeavors. 1 Efforts to change the situation by creating original designs “from scratch,” without regard for foreign templates and blueprints, have not lacked either: from time to time, Russia played the role of an institutional “exporter,” such as, for instance, after World War II with regard to Eastern European countries (Douglass, 1972).