Conversely, where such homogeneity is no longer present, and is beyond restoration, society as a whole cannot find its salvation in p o l i t i c a l measures; however, the i n d i v i d u a l can be saved by pedagogic means. Emile is educated expressly to live in a state in which the requirements of the C o n t r a t S o c i a l are no longer sufficient and in which the increasing domination of a tyrannical rule compels him at every turn to emigrate. 2 3 For this reason .Emile's education also includes learning a craft which would make him a welcome citizen in any country. Emile is first and foremost brought up to be not a citizen but a man. Nevertheless, even the merely "apparent" order of the state in which he lives is of help and value in teaching .Emile virtue: "La seule a p p a r e n c e de l ' o r d r e le p o r t e ale c o n n a i t r e , al ' a i m e r . L e b i e n

p u b l i c quinesertd e pretexteauxautres,estp o w · l u i s e u l u n m o t i f r e e l . " 24

Onthebasisofwhathasbeenshown,itisnowpossibleto developthedistinctionswithinRousseau'sconceptoffreedom. Letussummarizetheargument.AccordingtoRousseau,natural manenjoyedperfectfreedomor,moreexactly,absolute"independence."Physicallyandmateriallyself-sufficient,hewascompletelyindependentofthehelpofanyotherman.Butthe momenthislatenthumancharacteristicshaddeveloped,this stateofaffairscouldnotbemaintained.Intheearliestcommunities,formedundertheexternalpressureofnaturalcatastrophes,eachindividual'sbareexistencewasdependentuponthe community.However,dependentashewasatthisstage,man didnotregardhimselfasu n f r e e becausehewasnotdirectly dependentuponanyoneofhisfellowsindividuallybutupon theeffortsoftheentirecommunity.Manoriginallybecameunfree,accordingtoRousseau,asthedistributionoflabordevelopedandindividualshadtoturntooneanotherandbecome dependentupononeanother.Theprototypeofthiskindof dependenceistherelationshipbetweenthetillerofthesoiland thecraftsmaniniron:ploughmanandsmith.Theindividual's lossofself-sufficiencyisaccompaniedbyachangeinthepsychologicalandspiritualcompositionofman.Harmlessa m o u r d e soiistransformedintoinsatiablea m o u r p r o p r e . Theefforttowardself-preservationbecomesthecontestforhonoranddeference,withwealthasthemostfittingmeansofattainingthem. Maninsocietyisnowunfreeintwosenses:materiallyand spiritually.Heisdependentmateriallyupontheservicesof others.Theindividualattemptstoescapethisinaimingafter wealthandpowerwhicharethemeansofcompellingothersto rendertohimwhathecannotdowithout.Heintendshisdomina-