The concept of rights with their correlative duties has a relation to human beings similar to that which expectation has with reference to commodities. Reciprocity is the official valuation of the virtues and vices of human beings. When economists and courts speak of an “exchange” they usually think of two persons exchanging products or services, but when they speak of a “market” they think of two or more sellers and two or more buyers of similar commodities at a common place and time. Use-values and exchange-values are the wished-for activities—the expectations which give value in the present to that bundle of physical qualities which we name expectancies. Sympathy and duty are each a behavioristic outcome of human values, giving rise to rights, while utility is the outcome of commodity values. Since a duty imposed creates a corresponding equivalent right, the creation of rights is the creation of duties.