William Keteltas established the first prison newspaper in the United States, but not prison journalism. By 1835, most criminal codes in the United States had been revised, and imprisonment took the place of the traditional forms of punishment. The new punishments, moreover, could "boast of no great mitigation of crime," said Blake McKelvey. The central aim of a true prison system is the protection of society against crime, not the punishment of the criminal," Brockway told the delegates. The need for more adequate prisons provided the opportunity the reformers had been seeking. Buoyed by the growing acceptance of their ideas, reformers, prison officials, and philanthropists gathered in Cincinnati in October 1870 for the first American Prison Congress. Joseph Chandler was a former congressman and newspaper publisher. When Luceppa saw her darling child teetering on the edge of a precipice, said Chandler, she did not cry out his name and thus startle him and cause him to fall.