Zebulon Reed Brockway, who had played a critical role in the 1870 American Prison Congress and was by now widely regarded as the father of the new penology, was offered the post of Elmira's first warden in May 1876. Giving in entirely to Brockway's demands, lawmakers further agreed to provide a form of indeterminate sentencing. "Zebulon Brockway was the most important penologist in the United States; the Elmira Reformatory was the world's model correctional institution," wrote Alexander W. Pisciotta. Pisciotta's extensive research revealed that when Brockway's paternal methods did not achieve sufficient cooperation from his wards, he resorted to brutal techniques including corporal punishment. In 1885, the Summary continued its growth. The increasing demand for the paper outside of the prison lead Brockway and Macauley to offer subscriptions at fifty cents a year. Macauley and Brockway knew that their young newspaper was spawning a larger movement.