At the core of National Socialism was not only an institutionalized bureaucracy but also its intense ideological drive to transform the sociopolitical world and the very meaning of freedom. Most citizens have accepted, grudgingly at times, the subdivisions of society into elites and classes, and ethnic or religious divisions. The Nazis sought innovation and were more revolutionary; they wanted to reorder humanity according to the principle of racism, and that meant rebelling against the very sociopolitical principles, such as freedom, that characterized modernity, indeed, against the foundations of Western civilization itself. 1