In the early seventies young people in the United States joined communes; but their numbers decreased steadily in comparison with former years. The escapist element that had distinguished the hippie communes became weaker, and was replaced by a pragmatic approach expressed in modes of behavior and in revaluation and criticism of the hippie style of communal life. Ruth's claim that there existed differences in degrees of communality was confirmed by a survey of communes in the Boston area carried out by Brandeis University in the early seventies. In the rural communes, where in the past the members had lived in shared quarters, there was a clear tendency to permit separate living quarters; in the urban communes, on the other hand, the members lived in communal buildings. In April 1974, the cooperative was disbanded and ownership passed to the Twin Oaks Commune.