Identity is a way of expanding the concept of self to include social factors. Erikson's best known work, Childhood and Society, shows how the identity of particular individuals—be they Americans from different social strata, Sioux or Yurok Indians, Germans, or Russians—is woven together from individual history and social possibilities. This chapter examines the factors within the person which bear on the unity or fragmentation of the self and turns its attention to the role of society. Identity as a sum of roles and identifications suggests many selves, while oneness, unity, and individuality suggest a single, whole, or integrated self. Adopting a developmental perspective should clarify the apparent contradiction between these two meanings of identity. The task of creating a unified identity may be more or less difficult depending on two factors: those predispositions toward anxiety and dissociation that remain from childhood; and the opportunities for a meaningful, integrated, adult life offered by one's society.