In this chapter, the authors discuss the comparative analysis as a strategic method for generating theory assigns the method its fullest generality for use on social units of any size, large or small, ranging from men or their roles to nations or world regions. The term comparative analysis used in sociology and anthropology—has grown to encompass some different meanings and thereby to carry several different burdens. Many sociologists and anthropologists, recognizing the great power of comparative analysis, have employed it for achieving their various purposes. Generating theory carries the benefit as testing theory, plus an additional one. Sociologists who set themselves the task of generating theory from the data of social research have a job that can be done only by the sociologist, and that offers a significant product to laymen and colleagues alike. The distinction made between relative emphasis on generating and verifying can be illuminated further by considering the typical uses of evidence obtained through comparative studies.