Public diplomacy aims at nothing more specific than embellishing the image of a country. Karen Hughes had been appointed undersecretary for public diplomacy by President George W. Bush, eager to burnish in foreign countries the badly tarnished image of the United States. Efforts of public diplomacy have to be consistent, long-lasting, and narrowly targeted. The tools and channels of communication used in public diplomacy have to be built and maintained in a steady, long-term fashion. Public diplomacy will have to make full use of the tools and the opportunities provided by the media created by the "electronic revolution." Modern public diplomacy will, for instance, have to duly acknowledge the central function of databanks and search engines. A broad field of activities exists which is commonly also subsumed under the notion of "public diplomacy." These are the officially sponsored and/or officially administered programs of educational, cultural, and scientific exchange.