Even before Helen Reddy’s ‘I Am Woman’ became the unofficial anthem of the

second wave, there was a close but fraught relationship between popular culture

and feminism. Feminist ideas had long been disseminated through cultural prod-

ucts. First wave feminists helped to sustain their struggle through anthems, in

which the words of well known songs were replaced with rallying cries for fem-

inist struggle: ‘Forward sister women!’ rather than ‘Onward Christian solders!’

for example. Later feminists have made full use of new technology, representing

their ideas and activism in movies, music, television and, more recently, even