We have looked at the different forms that the religion-science debate takes in the different world religions. Now, in this and the following two chapters, science will take the lead. In each of these chapters we will work with the core theories and assumptions of a specific set of scientific disciplines. We will then explore the speculative questions that arise, directly or indirectly, out of these sciences. In the process you will become familiar with the proposals that have been advanced by thinkers from the different religious traditions, as well as with the criticisms that their claims have engendered. Readers must judge for themselves which religious responses they find credible and which ones are implausible. There is no blanket answer. One must decide on a case-by-case basis what are the merits of each particular religious interpretation of the scientific theories and results. Some scientists are extremely interested in the speculative questions that arise out of their disciplines – sometimes more in the philosophical questions, and sometimes more in the religious issues. As people who know the science well, they find it natural to follow questions beyond the boundaries of their particular field of specialization. Other scientists have no interest in (or time for) such debates. Finally, some are openly hostile to these speculations; they consider it highly regrettable that anyone would start with physics or biology and end up with religious conclusions. These are bona fide disagreements; there is no ‘official scientific position’ about whether such discussions are good or bad.