Some of the most fascinating – and challenging – debates in the entire field of religion and science arise in biology. Perhaps it is no coincidence that the percentage of theists in biology is much lower than the percentage of theists in physics. The challenges to traditional religion stemming from biology are among the most serious in all of science. At the same time, developments in biology since Darwin, and in particular in the last decade or so, have provided significant impulses for fruitful development within religious thought. These two tendencies – an immense challenge to most traditional religious belief, combined with rich new resources for open-minded religious reflection – perhaps best convey the spirit of discussions about biology and religion today.